A brief history of Programming Language: Programming Languages
What is Programming language ?
Programming language is a notation for describing Algorithm and data.
What is a Program :
A sentence of a programming language.
Let start from year "1954"Fortran (FORmula TRANslator)
• It is Created in 1954 by John Backus.
• It is First high level language.
• It was developed by using the first compiler ever developed
• It is Machine Independent Language.FORTRAN 2nd :
• In 1958 introduces subroutines, functions, loops and primitive for loopIAL(International Algebraic Logic)
• It started as a Project later renamed ALGOL58
• The theoretical definition of the language is published
• No compiler is required in this
LISP(LISt Processing) :
• It is created in 1958 and released in 1960 by John Mccarthy of MIT.
• LISP was intended for writing artificial intelligence programs.Features
• It uses Atoms and List as data structure
• Functional programming style- all component computation is performed by applying functions to arguments variable declaration are rarely used.
• A Reliance on recursion- a strong Reliance on recursion has allowed LISP to be successful in many areas including artificial intelligence.
• Garbage collection: LISP has built in garbage collection so programmers do not need to explicitly free dynamically allocated memory.
COBOL(Common Business Oriented Language)
• It was rated in May 1959 by the ShortRange committee of the us department of DOD.
• The CODASYL(COnference on Data SYstems Languages) Worked from May 1959 to April 1960.
• ANSI standard included(cobol-68(1968), Cobol-74(1974),COBOL-85(1985), and COBOL-2002(2002)
• Object Oriented version of COBOL is introduced in 1997 i.e COBOL-97
• Introduced the Record Data Structure.
ALGOL( ALGOrithmic Language)
• It was released in "1960"and its major releases were in "1960" and "1968".
• It Was first "Block Structured Language."
• It was Considered to be the first second generation Computer Language
• It is Machine Independent language
• It introduced concepts like :
• 1) Block structure code(Marked by BEGIN and END)
• 2) Scope of variables(Scope of local variables inside blocks)
• 3) BNF (Backus Naur Form)
• 4) Notation for defining syntax
• 5) Dynamic Arrays
• 6) Reserved words
• 7) IF THEN ELSE, FOR, WHILE loops
the : Symbol for assignment
SWITCH with GOTO
User defined data type.SNOBOL(StroNg Oriented symBOlic Language)
• It was created in 1964-
• Inted for "Strings"
• First Language to use Associative arrays , indexed by and type of key.
• Had feature of pattern matching, concatenation, and alternation.
• It allowed running code stored in strings
• Data types:- integer, real, array, pattern , and user defined types.
BASIC(Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
• Designed as a teaching language in 1963 by John george kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz of Dartmouth college.
• Intended to make it easy to learn programming.
PL/I (Programming language One)
• It was Created in 1964
• Intended to combine the features of fortran with Cobol, plus additional facilities for system programming.
• Also borrows from ALOL 60.
• Originally called NPL (New programming Language).
• Introduces storage classes(automatic, Static, controlled and based), exception processing(on condition)
• It uses Select when otherwise conditional structure and several variation of the DO Loop.
• It uses Numerous data types.
Pascal-(Named for French religious fanatic and mathematician Blaise Pascal)
• It was Created in 1970 .
• It was intended to replace BASIC for teaching language.
• It was quickly developed as a general purpose language.
• It was Programs compiled to a platform-independent intermediate p-code.
• compiler for Pascal was written in Pascal.C language:
• It was Developed from "1969 - 1972" by "Dennis Ritchie."
• It was used in system programming for UNIX.ANSI C: The American national standards Institute(ANSI), formed a technical sub committee, X3Jll, to create a standard for the C language and it runtime libraries. Ada:
• It was Released in "1983 (ADA 83)", with major released in "1995- (ADA (ADA 95)" and "2005 1005 (ADA 2005)".
• It was created by us Department of Defence(DOD).
• It was intended for embedded systems and later intended for all military computing purposes. Perl (Practical Extracting and Report Language)
• It was created by Larrywall ball in 1987.
• It was intended to replace the Unixshell, Sed, AWK.Python:
• It was Created in 1991 by GuidoVan Rossum.
• A scripting language with dynamic type, intended to replace perl.