A brief history of Programming Language: Programming Languages

What is Programming language ?

Programming language is a notation for describing Algorithm and data.

What is a Program :

A sentence of a programming language.

Let start from year "1954"

Fortran (FORmula TRANslator)

• It is Created in 1954 by John Backus.

• It is First high level language.

• It was developed by using the first compiler ever developed

• It is Machine Independent Language.

FORTRAN 2nd :

• In 1958 introduces subroutines, functions, loops and primitive for loop

IAL(International Algebraic Logic)

• It started as a Project later renamed ALGOL58

• The theoretical definition of the language is published

• No compiler is required in this

LISP(LISt Processing) :

• It is created in 1958 and released in 1960 by John Mccarthy of MIT.

• LISP was intended for writing artificial intelligence programs.

Features

• It uses Atoms and List as data structure

Functional programming style- all component computation is performed by applying functions to arguments variable declaration are rarely used.

A Reliance on recursion- a strong Reliance on recursion has allowed LISP to be successful in many areas including artificial intelligence.

Garbage collection: LISP has built in garbage collection so programmers do not need to explicitly free dynamically allocated memory.

COBOL(Common Business Oriented Language)

• It was rated in May 1959 by the ShortRange committee of the us department of DOD.

• The CODASYL(COnference on Data SYstems Languages) Worked from May 1959 to April 1960.

• ANSI standard included(cobol-68(1968), Cobol-74(1974),COBOL-85(1985), and COBOL-2002(2002)

• Object Oriented version of COBOL is introduced in 1997 i.e COBOL-97

Cobol

• Introduced the Record Data Structure.

ALGOL( ALGOrithmic Language)

• It was released in "1960"and its major releases were in "1960" and "1968".

• It Was first "Block Structured Language."

• It was Considered to be the first second generation Computer Language

• It is Machine Independent language

It introduced concepts like :

• 1) Block structure code(Marked by BEGIN and END)

• 2) Scope of variables(Scope of local variables inside blocks)

• 3) BNF (Backus Naur Form)

• 4) Notation for defining syntax

• 5) Dynamic Arrays

• 6) Reserved words

7) IF THEN ELSE, FOR, WHILE loops

the : Symbol for assignment

SWITCH with GOTO

User defined data type.

SNOBOL(StroNg Oriented symBOlic Language)

• It was created in 1964-

• Inted for "Strings"

• First Language to use Associative arrays , indexed by and type of key.

• Had feature of pattern matching, concatenation, and alternation.

• It allowed running code stored in strings

• Data types:- integer, real, array, pattern , and user defined types.

BASIC(Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)

• Designed as a teaching language in 1963 by John george kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz of Dartmouth college.

• Intended to make it easy to learn programming.

PL/I (Programming language One)

• It was Created in 1964

• Intended to combine the features of fortran with Cobol, plus additional facilities for system programming.

• Also borrows from ALOL 60.

• Originally called NPL (New programming Language).

• Introduces storage classes(automatic, Static, controlled and based), exception processing(on condition)

• It uses Select when otherwise conditional structure and several variation of the DO Loop.

• It uses Numerous data types.

Pascal-(Named for French religious fanatic and mathematician Blaise Pascal)

• It was Created in 1970 .

• It was intended to replace BASIC for teaching language.

• It was quickly developed as a general purpose language.

• It was Programs compiled to a platform-independent intermediate p-code.

• compiler for Pascal was written in Pascal.

C language:

• It was Developed from "1969 - 1972" by "Dennis Ritchie."

• It was used in system programming for UNIX.

ANSI C: The American national standards Institute(ANSI), formed a technical sub committee, X3Jll, to create a standard for the C language and it runtime libraries. Ada:

• It was Released in "1983 (ADA 83)", with major released in "1995- (ADA (ADA 95)" and "2005 1005 (ADA 2005)".

• It was created by us Department of Defence(DOD).

• It was intended for embedded systems and later intended for all military computing purposes. Perl (Practical Extracting and Report Language)

• It was created by Larrywall ball in 1987.

• It was intended to replace the Unixshell, Sed, AWK.

Python:

• It was Created in 1991 by GuidoVan Rossum.

• A scripting language with dynamic type, intended to replace perl.

01- Brief history of prog lang- Programming Languages




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